Since the death of his first “patient,” the media has frequently portrayed Jack Kevorkian as a retired pathologist whose only goal is to help end the unbearable suffering of terminal illness. The facts tell a different story.
How did Jack Kevorkian become well known?
He actively sought publicity for years before achieving it by his first “patient’s” death.
His search for a first “patient” began in 1987 when he began placing ads in the newspaper classified section (1) and handing out business cards that read:
“Jack Kevorkian, MD… Bioethics and Obitiatry… Special Death Counseling. By Appointment Only.”(2)
In 1989 a medical society publication turned him down when he wanted to advertise his death machine (3) and local newspapers rejected his attempt to place a display ad, (4) but the rejections led to news reports that gave him coverage previously lacking.
He “knew it would take a ‘bulls-eye'” to establish his “new specialty.” (5) By the Fall of 1989, he was screening possible “patients” with an eye to their publicity value.
One rejected “patient” was a woman with multiple sclerosis who, he explained, was “not a suitable candidate for the first use of the Mercitron [Kevorkian’s death machine]” because her situation wouldn’t garner the favorable coverage he needed for the “initial event.” (6)
He promised that hers would be the second death, but her relatives heard what was going on and “whisked her off.” (7) Kevorkian continued his quest.
In March 1990, a Detroit paper carried an article stating:
“Applications are being accepted. Oppressed by a fatal disease, a severe handicap, a crippling deformity? Write Box 261, Royal Oak, Mich. 48068-0261. Show him proper compelling medical evidence that you should die, and Dr. Jack Kevorkian will help you kill yourself, free of charge.” (8)
On June 4, 1990, he tested his machine for the first time at a campsite near Detroit. As a result of that test, a 54 year-old Oregon woman lay dead in the back of his rusty, old Volkswagen van. And Jack Kevorkian, with her blood spattered on his hands and clothing, was on his way to becoming known around the world.(9)
What medical experience and training does Jack Kevorkian have?
His professional record is notable for its lack of any credentials which would qualify him to deal with depressed or dying people.
When asked about his medical career, Kevorkian said:
“Well, it’s never been going well. I had an erratic practice…I had so many controversial topics on my resume, that people were just frightened to death of me. And it was hopeless to get a position.” (10)
His professional experience has been primarily in the field of pathology (dealing with dead bodies and body parts). (11)
With the exception of his residency and his military service in the 1950s, he has had no clinical experience with live patients. (12)
He has no training or expertise in diagnosing or treating depression, and is completely lacking in any education or experience in the fields of internal medicine, geriatrics, psychiatry and neurology. (13)
He has admitted that he is not qualified to practice medicine, even as a general practitioner. (14) Yet he has said that the decision about who is worthy to use his death machine is based on his medical expertise. (15)
He graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1952, did his internship at the Henry Ford Hospital, (16) and his residency in pathology at the University of Michigan and at Pontiac General Hospital. (17)
He worked as a general pathologist at Pontiac General Hospital from 1960-1966. The circumstances of his leaving are unclear. Although he said under oath that he’d never been asked to leave a hospital, he later said he had been fired from Pontiac General. (18)
He then went to Wyandotte General Hospital where he worked for five months, (19) after which he set up a computerized diagnostic clinic that failed in about a year. He blamed the failure on other doctors who wouldn’t refer anyone to his clinic. (20)
In the 1970s he bounced back and forth between Michigan and California. During this time he worked at four different hospitals and took a 2 1/2 year break from the medical profession. (21)
Although he calls himself a “retired” pathologist, he has not held a full-time job for years. (22) His unemployment has been more accurately described a “forced retirement.” (23) He was even turned down for a job as a paramedic in 1989. (24)
He does not have a license to practice medicine. His Michigan license was suspended in 1991 and his California license was suspended in 1993. (25) According to the California Attorney General’s office, Kevorkian is “fundamentally unfit to practice medicine.”(26)
Isn’t Jack Kevorkian only trying to end suffering?
No. In fact, Kevorkian himself has made it very clear that that’s not what his activities are all about:
He has specifically stated that alleviation of agonizing pain and torment is only a “minor benefit” in his overall scheme of things. (27)
His “ultimate aim,” as he described it, is “not simply to help suffering or doomed persons kill themselves.” That activity, he said,”is merely the first step, an early distasteful professional obligation” which will lead to his goal. (28)
What is Jack Kevorkian’s goal?
The establishment of deadly human experimentation as a medical specialty is Kevorkian’s goal.
“What I find most satisfying,” he has said, “is the prospect of making possible the performance of invaluable experiments” and other undefined “medical acts.” (29)
He has described a process by which “subjects,” including infants, children, even the mentally incompetent, would be used for experiments ” of any kind or complexity.” (30) Then, if the subject’s body is alive after experimentation, “death may be induced” by such means as “removal of organs for transplantation” or “a lethal dose of a new or untested drug to be administered by an official executioner.”(31)
Infants, children and others incapable of giving direct or informed consent are among the “potential candidates for the humane killing known as euthanasia.” He calls this “suicide by proxy.” (32)
He has expressed his desire to assist in the deaths of 20 or 30 year-olds who are not ill, but who “just don’t want to live anymore.”(33)
He has said he wants to establish death houses run by “untouchables” where even an 18 year-old could go. (34) Under his supervision, he claims, the “untouchables” would be “incorruptible.” (35)
He has even drawn up plans for these death centers. Using Michigan as a model for the nation, he has divided the state into eleven killing zones.(36)
All killing…which would be considered a medical specialty called “obitiatry” (from the word “obituary”)…would be controlled through “zone headquarters.”(37)
The “practitioner” of medical killing would be called an “obitiatrist”…literally “doctor of death.” (38)
He has proposed a “auction market for available organs” (39) taken from “subjects” who are “hopelessly crippled by arthritis or malformations.” (40) Part of the money from the dead disabled person’s auctioned organs could go to relatives whose financial burdens would be eased and “their standard of living enhanced.”(41)
How do Jack Kevorkian’s “patients” die?
Of the twenty-five “patients” who died between June 1990 and August 1995, two died of lethal amounts of intravenous drugs. The remaining twenty-three were gassed to death with carbon monoxide. (42)
Kevorkian described his original death machine in 1989:
“It’s execution by lethal injection, except you do it yourself.”(43)
“It’s dignified, humane and painless, and the patient can do it in the comfort of their own home anytime they want. “(44)
There have been several death machines which Kevorkian and his attorney have called a “killing machine,” “self-execution machine,” “mercy machine, ” “Thanatron,” “Mercitron.”
Model No. 1 (used for the first “patient”)
Made from scrap aluminum, a toy car that Kevorkian had torn apart for its pieces, and other scraps scavenged from garage sales and flea markets, the contraption was a metal pole with bottles containing drug solutions. (45)
A needle was inserted into the arm and the flow of harmless saline started. After a switch was tripped, the solution of sedatives was to begin, followed automatically by a paralyzing agent and potassium chloride which was to result in heart slippage and death. (46) (The heart was monitored by cardiography electrodes on the victim’s arms and legs.)(47)
The machine did not, in fact, work as Kevorkian had planned. Death occurred earlier than he contended. (48)
Kevorkian later said that if the chemicals hadn’t killed his first “patient,” he was prepared to “finish it myself.” (49)
MODEL NO. 2 (used for the second “patient”)
Kevorkian said the machine was “pretty much like my first one…any high school physics student can put it together…but it has fewer moving parts.”(50)
Drug solutions did not include the paralyzing agent. (51)
MODEL NO. 3 (variations of which were used for “patients” number 3 through 25)
Consisted of a tightly fitted mask placed over the face, connected by tubing to a canister of carbon monoxide gas. (52)
When activated, the flow of carbon monoxide began, resulting in death from carbon monoxide poisoning which, Kevorkian has said, “often produced a rosy color that makes the victim look better as a corpse.” (53)
Doesn’t Jack Kevorkian limit his services to the terminally ill who are not depressed?
“Terminally ill,” as defined in most proposals to legalize euthanasia and assisted suicide, means a life expectancy of six months or less. (54) Yet the majority of Jack Kevorkian’s “patients” did not fall within the meaning of “terminally ill.” (Kevorkian has defined terminal illness as “any disease that curtails life even for a day.” (55) His attorney, Geoffrey Fieger, has written, “Any disease that curtails life-span is terminal.”(56)
He has testified that, if a person is depressed over illness or disability, “the depression becomes irrelevant. “(57)
He has written that the deaths of sick or disabled people would benefit society:
“[T]he voluntary self-elimination of individual and mortally diseased or crippled lives taken collectively can only enhance the preservation of public health and welfare.” (58)
When questioned by Time magazine, Kevorkian said that doctors will decide who dies:
Q. How do you decide whom to help? Does the patient have to suffer from a life-threatening illness?
A. No, of course not. And it doesn’t have to be painful, as with quadriplegia. But your life quality has to be nil.
Q. And who decides that?
A. That’s up to physicians, and nobody can gainsay what doctors say. It all boils down to the integrity of the doctors….
Q. What about people who suffer emotionally and want to die?
A. …Once this gets going as a practice for physically debilitated people, the psychiatrists are going to have a whopping job because it is going to be up to them to decide how this fits into their field. (59)
Twenty-seven people died from June 1990 through January 1996 using one of Jack Kevorkian’s machines.
|Janet Adkins, 54, 6/4/90||Stanely Ball, 82, 2/4/93||Donald O’Keefe, 73, 9/9/93|
|Marjorie Wantz, 58, 10/23/91||Mary Biernat, 73, 2/4/93||Merian Frederick, 72, 10/22/93|
|Sherry Miller, 43, 10/23/91||Elaine Goldbaum, 47, 2/8/93||Ali Khalili, 61, 11/22/93|
|Susan Williams, 52, 5/15/92||Hugh Gale, 70, 2/15/93||Margaret Garrish, 72, 11/26/94|
|Lois Hawes, 52, 9/26/92||Jonathon Grenz, 44, 2/18/93||John Evans, 78, 5/8/95|
|Catherine Andreyev, 46, 11/23/92||Martha Ruwart, 41, 2/18/93||Nicholas Loving, 27, 5/12/95|
|Marcella Lawrence, 67, 12/15/92||Ronald Mansur, 54, 5/16/93||Erika Garcellano, 60, 6/26/95|
|Marguerite Tate, 70, 12/15/92||Thomas Hyde, 30, 8/4/93||Esther Cohan, 46, 8/21/95|
|Jack Miller, 53, 1/20/93||Patricia Cashman, 58, 11/08/95||Linda Henslee, 48, 01/29/96|
Published reports and court records indicate that the majority of Kevorkian’s twenty-seven “patients” did not fall within the generally described category of “terminally ill” (life expectancy of six months or less). Some reportedly could have lived for many more months or even for many years.
In addition to illness, other conditions in their lives may have contributed to the decisions of some to die. For example: Elaine Goldbaum had financial problems and feared losing her house; (60) Jonathon Grenz was said to be depressed and “overwhelmed with grief” following his mother’s death. (61) Ali Khalili, who drove his car from Chicago to Michigan for his health had reportedly told a doctor that “the quality of his life had been compromised by an anxiety state. “(62)
Aren’t we really talking about “death with dignity”?
No. The first three deaths provide an example.
JANET ADKINS, age 54, died 6/4/90, of a lethal dose of drugs.
She was in the early stages of Alzheimer’s, and her own doctor said she had at least ten years of productive life ahead of her. (63)
She had never met or talked with Kevorkian until she arrived in Michigan two days before her death. All arrangements were made by her husband, Ron, (64) who is now president of the Oregon Hemlock Society. (65)
In the year before her death, Janet Adkins and her family were counseled by a family therapist who was coordinator of the Oregon Hemlock Society. (66)
According to an aunt, “She did not want to be a burden to her husband and family”(67) and a friend explained, “She felt it [her death] was a gift to her family, sparing them the burden of taking care of her.” (68)
At the videotaped meeting (two days before Adkins’ death) arranged to discuss her impending death, Janet Adkins never specifically asked to be put to death by Kevorkian. She did not say she wanted to commit suicide or to end her life. (69)
MARJORIE WANTZ, age 58, died 10/23/91 of a lethal dose of drugs.
She had experienced pelvic pain but, although a number of physicians advised her that her pain was manageable, she did not follow through with their recommendations. (70)
Kevorkian did not examine Ms. Wantz’s pelvic area and met with her only three times…once when they were guests on a television program together, and another time, the day before her death to make a videotape. (71)
She had no life-threatening condition. An autopsy found that she had no illness or disease. (72)
She had reportedly been taking extremely large doses of Halcion (a medication known to impair judgment) in the months preceding her death. (73)
She had been hospitalized for psychiatric care on a number of occasions. (74)
SHERRY MILLER, age 43, died 10/23/91 of carbon monoxide poisoning.
She had multiple sclerosis and could have lived for many years but said she felt she was “becoming a burden on people.”(73)
She had been suffering from depression which had been noted five years earlier.(76)
She did not want to take the medication that had been prescribed for depression. (77)
She testified that she no longer had any quality of life. (78)
Her death was to have been from a lethal dose of drugs but, after repeated attempts and punctures to her arm, Kevorkian couldn’t insert a needle into her veins. He left her waiting for four hours at the death site while he “went to town” to get supplies so she could be gassed to death. (79)
Aren’t other euthanasia leaders less radical than Kevorkian?
No, In fact, many have expressed support for him and approval of his goals.
- John Pridonoff, former executive director of the Hemlock Society U.S.A., was on hand to publicly pledge support for Kevorkian’s efforts to launch a campaign in Michigan to legalize euthanasia and assisted suicide for those who are “incapacitated.” (80)Pridonoff wrote, “Since October of 1992 The Hemlock Society U.S.A. and I have indicated support for the goals and objectives of Kevorkian.” (81)
- Sidney Rosoff, president of the Hemlock Society U.S.A. and former board chairman of the Society for the Right to Die, said, “Dr. Kevorkian really deserves a great deal of credit for doing what other physicians are not doing or at least are not doing openly.” (82)In a letter to the New York Times, Rosoff wrote, “Dr. Kevorkian acted in the tradition of a caring and courageous physician.”
- The National Hemlock Society (now called the Hemlock Society U.S.A.), in a press release, said, “Hemlock would prefer that actions like those of Dr. Kevorkian were clearly made legal and not subject to ambiguity.”(84)In another press release, Hemlock declared, “Dr. Kevorkian’s motive was purely humanitarian.”(85)
- Derek Humphry, co-founder of the Hemlock Society and author of the suicide manual, Final Exit, said, “One could quibble about things with Dr. Kevorkian, but basically he’s along the same lines as me…He ought to be able to do these things in hospitals and not in the back of a van.”(86)Humphry is also quoted as saying that Kevorkian is “a very brave pioneer who is trying to shock the medical profession into accepting voluntary euthanasia…”(87) On another occasion, Humphry commented, “It’s a pincer movement. He’s (Kevorkian) coming at it through the courts and we in the right-to-die movement are coming through the legislatures.”(88)
- Pit Bakker, chairwoman of the Dutch Voluntary Society, called Kevorkian’s death machine, “a technical innovation which brings no new ethical elements” to euthanasia debate.
- Janet Good, president of Hemlock of Michigan, praised Kevorkian: “He’s compassionate, he’s courageous; thank God we have a doctor like him.”(90)
Is Opposition to assisted suicide and euthanasia just an attempt by religious fanatics to impose their beliefs on others?
Not by a long shot.
Jack Kevorkian and his attorneys seize every opportunity to label opponents as “religious nuts”(91) and “Nazis.”(92) They’ve carried their name calling to outlandish extremes, including even columnist Ellen Goodman in the “religious nut” category.(93) They’ve claimed that the Michigan legislature is controlled by “a right-wing fanatic religious minority,” (94) and that the Medical Board of California is “a religious cult.”(95) They’ve maintained that a vote of the people would show that the public wants assisted suicide and euthanasia.(96)
Yet, since Kevorkian began sending people to the grave, voters in Washington and California have defeated ballot initiatives that would have legalized Kevorkian-type practices. (97) Neither state is known as a bastion of religious activism.
During the California campaign, major newspapers including the Los Angeles Times and the San Francisco Chronicle opposed the measure. (98) So did organizations like the California State Hospice Association and California Commission on Aging.(99) These could scarcely be described as religious publications or groups.
Journalists and ethicists have also expressed strong opposition to the Kevorkian solution:
- Steven Miles, a Minneapolis physician who has analyzed judicial opinions for the American Society of Law and Medicine, has explained that Kevorkian acts “as a mirror for the hatred of disability–the idea that our bodies must be perfect.”(100)
- USA Today’s Diane Culbertson has predicted that if Kevorkian’s “type of killer medicine becomes accepted, what horrors the future could hold. The progression is obvious; from assisted death to suggesting death to insisting on death.”
- Debra Saunders of the San Francisco Chronicle has observed that “the death doc’s forthright embrace of body-parts harvesting and auctions show the euthanasia movement for what it very easily could turn into–a cold-blooded death machine that finds expanding reasons and social benefits in suicide.”(102)
- Syndicated columnist Charles Krauthammer has written, “Ours is a society with 31,000 suicides a year, a rate 30 percent higher that the murder rate about which people are in such a panic today. Our problem is not the difficulty of committing suicide, but the ease.”(103)
Are individuals who point out the dangers of euthanasia and assisted suicide seeking to impose suffering on others?
On the contrary.
Those who do the most to alleviate suffering–the man who brings meals to AIDS patients, the woman who cares for a frail parent, the hospice nurse whose patients are lovingly comforted, the oncologist who takes the time to kill pain, not patients–are the most vocal in their opposition to the practices that Kevorkian considers ethical.
But people with disabilities are the most eloquent in pointing out that what is really at issue in much of the promotion of assisted suicide is a deeply rooted prejudice in our society against those who are severely disabled–a prejudice characterized by bigots who begrudge access to independent living or jobs, but rush to provide access to the grave. Disability rights leaders make their concern very clear:
- “Kevorkian is sending out a message that, if you have a physical disease, it is not OK to go on living,” according to Patricia McDonald of the Michigan Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. (104)
- Ronald Seigel, chief of the Michigan Democrat’s Handicapper Caucus has said that if Kevorkian were to prevail it would be “open season on the handicapped.”(105)
- “Choice is becoming a code word for the powerful eliminating the powerless,” wrote Bill Bolte, president of Barrier Busters Inc. Warning that Kevorkian’s plans pose a deadly threat to all severely disabled people, Bolte said, “We may find personally that our own lives are needlessly shortened as the death industry begins drawing off funds from aid to the living.”(106)
What does it all mean?
At a press conference after he was charged in the death of one “patient,” Kevorkian said, “You know what’s on trial? Your civilization and your society.”(107)
He was correct. Our civilization and our society are at stake.
Jack Kevorkian typifies the direction in which the euthanasia movement is headed. His goals and actions provide an excellent illustration of what could become commonplace if his dark vision of the future were to become a reality.
1. Jack Kevorkian, Prescription Medicide (New York,: Prometheus Books, 1991), p.196
2. “Death, by appointment only,” Health Care Weekly Review, 8/24/87,p.1.
3. Rita Marker, Deadly Compassion–The Death of Ann Humphry and the Truth About Euthanasia (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1993). p. 166.
4. Kevorkian, Prescription Medicide, p.215.
6. Ibid. p.219(emphasis added)
8.”In Royal Oak: The Death Machine,” Detroit Free Press Magazine, 3/18/90,p.24
9.Marker, Deadly Compassion,pp. 161-163.
10. Jack Kevorkian, Speech given to the National Press Club, Washington, D.C., October 27,1992.
11.Michigan v Kevorkian, 92-115190-FC, 92-DA-5303-AR, Plaintiff’s Brief, 4/22/92,p.31.
13. In The Matter of the Accusation and First Supplemental Accusation Against Jack Kevorkian before the Division of Medical Quality, Medical Board of California, Department of Consumer Affairs, State of California, Complainant’s Hearing Brief, Case No. D-5111,OAH No, L-60083, 12/28/93, p.29. Hereafter cited as California Medical Board, Complainant’s Brief, 12/28/93.
14. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
15. Transcript of Testimony of Jack Kevorkian, M.D., in Case No. 90-3909630-AZ, Michigan v. Kevorkian, Oakland County (MI) Circuit Court, 6/8/90, p.40. Hereafter cited as Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90.
16.Californian Medical Board, Complainant’s Brief, 12/28/93, p.9.
18. Ibid., p.10.
19. Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90.p.19.
21. California Medical Board, Complainant’s Brief, 12/28/93,pp.10-11.
22. “Death, by appointment only,” Health Care Weekly Review, August 24, 1987.
23. “Mercy’s Friend or Foe?” Newsweek, December 28, 1992,p.36.
24.”Death Becomes Him,” Contra Costa Times, 12/14/93, p.2F and “I Am Not Afraid,” Detroit Free Press Magazine, 2/3/91, p.8.
25.”California Suspends Kevorkian’s License,” Los Angeles Times, 4/28/93, p.A3.
26. California Medical Board, Complainants Brief, 12/28/93, p. 19.
27. “Medicide: The Goodness of Planned Death–An Interview with Dr. Jack Kevorkian,” Free Inquiry, vol.11, no. 4 (Fall l991), p. 15. Hereafter cited as “Interview.”
28.Kevorkian, Prescription: Medicide, p. 214 (emphasis added).
30. Jack Kevorkian, “A Comprehensive Bioethical Code for Medical Exploitation Of Humans Facing Imminent and Unavoidable Death,”Medicine and Law, vol. 5 (1986), pp.194-195.
31. Ibid., p 195.
32. Kevorkian, Prescription: Medicide, p. 200.
33. Alice Gilbert, “The Legal Response to Assisted Suicide,” Ohio Northern University Law Review, vol. 20, no. 3 (1994), p. 674 and California Medical Board, Complainants Brief, 12/28/93, p. 35.
34. Gilbert, Ohio Northern University Law Review (1994), p. 674.
35. “Suicide device mustn’t be used, judge rules”, Grand Rapids Press, 6/9/90 and Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90,pp. 11-12.
36. Jack Kevorkian, “A Fail-Safe Model for Justifiable Medically-Assisted Suicide,” American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1 (1992), pp. 11 & 28.
37. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
38. Ibid., p. 11.
39. Jack Kevorkian, “A Controlled Auction Market Is a Practical Solution to the Shortage of Transplantable Organs,” Medicine and Law, vol. 11, nos. 1,2 (1992), p. 49.
40. Ibid., p. 51.
41. Ibid., pp. 52-53.
42. After the deaths of Sherry Miller and Marjorie Wantz in 1991, Kevorkian’s Michigan medical license was suspended, leaving him without access to controlled drugs.
43. “Doctor Invents ‘Self-Execution’ Machine,” San Francisco Chronicle, 10/28/89.
44. “Suicide Machine Used for First Time,” San Francisco Chronicle, 6/6/90, p. A4, referring to a 1989 Detroit Free Press article.
45. “In Royal Oak: The Death Machine,” Detroit Free Press Magazine, 3/18/1990 and “A Vital Woman Chooses Death,” People Magazine, 6/25/90,p.43.
46. “New Kevorkian ‘death machine,'” Medical Tribune, 4/4/91.
47. “Lethal Injection,” Detroit News 6/6/90, p. 6A.
48. In his testimony before Judge Alice Gilbert, Dr. Fredric Rieders, laboratory director at National Medical Services, Inc., said the death machine did not work as Kevorkian had contended. Rather than dying from the effects of potassium chloride, Janet Adkins had died of an overdose of the sedative. “Witness: Kevorkian was ready to ‘finish job,'” Detroit News. 12/13/90.
49. “Witness: Kevorkian was ready to ‘finish job'” Detroit News, 12/13/90.
50. “Suicide Doctor Says He Has Another Death Machine”, San Francisco Chronicle, 3/19/91. p.A1.
51. Medical Tribune, 4/4/91.
52.”Michigan Furor Over Doctor’s Role in 2 More Suicides,” San Francisco Chronicle, 10/25/91, p. A3; “Kevorkian watches as 2 women kill themselves with suicide machines,” Detroit News, 10/24/91; and Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/11/92, p. xviii.
53. Kevorkian, Prescription: Medicide, p. 193. (Kevorkian had originally intended to use this method when he began searching for a “patient” in 1987.)
54. Washington Initiative 119, Sec. 2 (7); California Proposition 161, Sec. 2525.2 (j); Oregon “Death with Dignity Act,” Sec. 1.01 (12).
55. J. Kevorkian, in speech to National Press Club. “‘Dr. Death’: No law is needed on euthanasia,” USA Today, October 28, 1992, p. 6A.
56. Geoffrey Fieger, Letter to the Editor, Detroit Free Press, 12/11/90.
57. Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90, pp.43-44.
58. Jack Kevorkian, Written Statement to Court, 8/17/90, p. 11 (emphasis in orginal).
59. “Kevorkian Speaks His Mind,” Time, 5/31/93, p. 39.
60. “Kevorkian assists in 12th suicide,” Detroit News, 2/9/93.
61. “Kevorkian: Death must be an option,” USA Today, 2/22/94, p.2A.
62. “While Out on Bail, Kevorkian Attends a Doctor’s Suicide,” New York Times, 11/23/93, p. A1.
63. “Profession condemns doctor,” Detroit Free Press, 6/7/90, p. 14A.
64. “Doctor Ordered Not to Use Suicide Device,” San Francisco Chronicle, 6/9/90, p. A1.
65. “Kevorkian Begins Ballot Drive for Suicide Measure,” New York Times, 1/31/94, p.A6.
66. Letter to the Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 20 (May 16, 1991), pp. 1434-1435.
67. “What Drove Woman to Suicide Machine,” San Francisco Chronicle, 6/7/90, p. A2.
68. “A Vital Woman Chooses Death,” People Magazine, 6/25/90, p. 42.
69. Gilbert, Ohio Northern University Law Review, p. 679 and California Medical Board, Complainant’s Brief, 12/28/93, p. 59.
70. California Medical Board, Complainant’s Brief, 12/28/93, p. 64.
71. Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/11/92, p. xi.
72.”Murder charges for Dr. Death? “Detroit News, 12/19/91.
73. “Kevorkian suicide patient was on Halcion,” Detroit News, 11/3/91. Dr. Anthony Kales, head of psychiatry at Penn State University, questioned the ability of a person on Halcion to make appropriate judgments. He said, “When I talk with patients who use Halcion, I’m never quite sure if they even mean what they say. It impairs their judgment that much.”
74. Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/22/92, pp. xi-xiii.
75. Michigan v. Kevorkian, Oakland County Circuit Court, 92-115190-FC, 92-DA-5303-AR, Plaintiff’s Brief in Support of Answer to Motion to Quash Information and Dismiss Case, 4/22/92, p. xiv. Hereafter cited at Michigan v.Kevorkian, 4/22/92.
76. California Medical Board, Complainant’s Brief, 12/28/93, p. 67.
77. Transcript of Testimony of Sherry Miller, in Case No. 90-390963-AZ, Michigan v. Kevorkian, Oakland County (MI) Circuit Court, 6/8/90, pp. 184-187.
78. Ibid. pp. 156-157.
79. Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/22/92, p. ix.
80. Time Lines (newsletter of the Hemlock Society U.S.A.), January-February 1994, p. 1.
81. John Pridonoff, “The Law and Dr. Kevorkian,” Time Lines, January-February, 1994, p. 1. (emphasis added.)
82. Sidney Rosoff, in an interview on “Buchanan and Company,” a nationally syndicated radio program, 8/20/93.
83. Sidney Rosoff, in a letter to the editor, New York Times, 8/21/93.
84.National Hemlock Society, Press release, Eugene, Oregon, 6/6/90.
85. National Hemlock Society, Press release, Eugene, Oregon, 10/24/91.
86. “Founder defends euthanasia action,” The Lima News (Lima, Ohio), 10/16/93, p. B1.
87. Paul Verschuur, “Euthanasia Advocates Say Death Machine Raises Few New Issues,”AP wire service, 6/7/90.
88. “Dr. Death’s trial intrigues legal experts,” The Beacon Journal (Akron, Ohio), 8/19/93, p. A6.
89. Verschuur, AP wire service, 6/7/90.
90. “Doctor who helped in death gets support,” Detroit Free Press, 6/7/90.
91. “Defiant Kevorkian vows to break Michigan law,” Vindicator (Youngstown, OH), 2/21/93, p. A13.
92. “Kevorkian Assists Another,” Detroit Free Press, 2/16/93.
93. Ellen Goodman, “Wiping Off the Slate,” San Francisco Chronicle, 12/28/93, p. A17.
94. “Kevorkian helps 12th patient end life,” Detroit Free Press, 2/9/93.
95. “California Suspends Kevorkian’s License,” Los Angeles Times, 4/28/93, p. A3.
96. “Suicide may be murder,” Detroit Free Press, 2/6/93. p. 10A.
97. Washington voters defeated Initiative 119 in 1991, California citizens turned down a similar measure, Proposition 161, in 1992.
98. “Physician-Assisted Death: Is This Measure the Answer?” Los Angeles Times, 10/14/92 and “The Chronicle Recommends,” San Francisco Chronicle, 10/29/92.
99.”NO on 161″ campaign material.
100. “Would it have made a difference if they were men?” Detroit Free Press, 11/4/91.
101. “Killing mustn’t be part of the healing art,” USA Today, 10/28/91, p. 12A.
102. Syndicated columnist, Debra Saunders, “Frankenstein Lives in Michigan,” San Francisco Chronicle, 3/3/93, p. A14.
103. Charles Krauthammer, “Make Dr. Kevorkian a test case–and then throw the book at him,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 23/6/93, p.1B.
104. 12th suicide Kevorkian assists in”, Detroit News, 12/9/9/3, p. 1B (emphasis added).
105. “Kevorkian Charged in Assisted Suicide,” Washington Post, 8/18/93, p.11A.
106. Bill Bolte, “Be wary of these ‘last rights,'” USA Today, 2/24/93, p. 13A.
107. “As He Hoped, Kevorkian is Charged in Suicide,” New York Times, 8/18/93, p. A7.